Banks exist to lend money, so it's no surprise that banks offer a wide variety of ways to fund growth. Here's a look at how lenders generally structure loans, with common variations.
- Line-of-credit loans: The most useful type of loan for the small business is the line-of-credit loan. This is a short-term loan that extends the cash available in your business's checking account to the upper limit of the loan contract. You pay interest on the actual amount advanced from the time it is advanced until it is paid back. Line-of-credit loans are intended for purchases of inventory and payment of operating costs for working capital and business cycle needs. They are not intended for purchases of equipment or real estate.
- Installment loans: These bank loans are paid back with equal monthly payments covering both principal and interest. Installment loans may be written to meet all types of business needs. You receive the full amount when the contract is signed, and interest is calculated from that date to the final day of the loan. If you repay an installment loan before its final date, there will be no penalty and an appropriate adjustment of interest.
- Balloon loans: These loans require only the interest to be paid off during the life of the loan, with a final "balloon" payment of the principal due on the last day. Balloon loans are often used in situations when a business has to wait until a specific date before receiving payment from a client for its product or services.
- Interim loans: Interim financing is often used by contractors building new facilities. When the building is finished, a mortgage on the property will be used to pay off the interim loan.
- Secured and unsecured loans: Loans can be secured or unsecured. An unsecured loan has no collateral pledged as a secondary payment source should you default on the loan. The lender provides you with an unsecured loan because it considers you a low risk. A secured loan requires some kind of collateral but generally has a lower interest rate than an unsecured loan. The collateral is usually related to the purpose of the loan; for instance, if you're borrowing to buy a printing press, the press itself will likely serve as collateral. Loans secured with receivables are often used to finance growth, with the banker lending up to 75 percent of the amount due. Inventory used to secure a loan is usually valued at up to 50 percent of its sale price.
- Letter of credit: International traders use these to guarantee payment to suppliers in other countries. The document substitutes the bank's credit for the entrepreneur's up to a set amount for a specified period of time.
Despite what you might see on late-night infomercials or some websites, none of the SBA's loan programs involve free money, government grants or no-interest loans. In fact, the SBA doesn't even lend funds directly to entrepreneurs--you'll need to strike up a relationship with a loan officer at your local bank, credit union or nonprofit financial intermediary to access the programs.
But once you do, there's an array of resources aimed at getting you the capital you need to start or expand your small business. Last year, more than $50 million in SBA loans were being provided per day to U.S. small businesses.
- 7(a) Loan Program. The 7(a) is the SBA's most popular loan program. As a small-business owner, you can get up to $750,000 from your local 7(a) lender, backed by a partial guarantee from the SBA. Note that the SBA is not lending you any money directly. What they are doing is making it less risky for a local lender to provide you with financing. 7(a) loans are typically used for working capital, asset purchases and leasehold improvements. All the owners of a business who hold an ownership stake of 20 percent or more are required to personally guarantee the loan.
Once your lender decides that 7(a) money is what you need, you'll probably start hearing the names of the different 7(a) programs. For example if you're borrowing less than $150,000, you may be headed toward the Lowdoc program, which was created in 1993 to reduce burdensome paperwork. A Lowdoc loan application is a one-page form; your application is on one side and the lender's request to the SBA for the guaranty for your loan is on the other. The SBA responds to Lowdoc applications within 36 hours.
The SBA Express is a program for lenders with a good SBA-lending track record. It's aimed at getting money--in this case, as much as $250,000--quickly into the hands of entrepreneurs. Based on the success of the SBA Express program, the SBA initiated CommunityExpress, specifically designed to improve access to capital for low- and moderate-income entrepreneurs and to provide both pre- and post-loan technical assistance.
The eligibility criteria for the 7(a) program are the broadest of all the SBA loan programs, but they're still quite restrictive for startups and businesses related to financial services. See this pageon the SBA's website for a list of the types of business that are eligible. In general, all SBA programs are targeted at small companies (that is, businesses with less than $7 million in tangible net worth and less than $2.5 million in net income), but typically most banks won't lend to startup businesses that don't have two to three years' worth of financial statements and some owner's equity in the business. Some banks will allow you to use money from relatives as part of your equity, but you're required to formalize these loans with a repayment plan that's subordinate to the bank debt.
- 504 Loan Program. The 504 loan program is intended to supply funds for asset purchases, such as land or equipment. Typically, the asset purchase is funded by a loan from a bank or other lender in your area, along with a second loan from a certified development company (CDC) that's funded with an SBA guarantee for up to 40 percent of the value of the asset--which is generally a loan of up to $1 million--and a contribution of 10 percent from the equity of the borrower. This financing structure helps the primary lender--the bank--reduce its exposure by relying on the CDC and the SBA to shoulder much of the risk.
Like the 7(a) program, the 504 program is restricted to small businesses with less than $7 million in tangible net worth and less than $2.5 million in net income. However, since funds from 504 loans can't be used for working capital or inventory, consolidating or repaying debt, or refinancing, this program tends to exclude most service businesses that need to purchase land or equipment. Personal guarantees are also required for 504 loans.
- 7(m) Microloan Program. The program is intended to provide "small" loans of up to $35,000 that can be used for a broad range of purposes to start and grow a business. Unlike the 7(a) program, the funds to be loaned don't come from banks; rather, they come directly from the SBA and are administered to business owners via nonprofit community-based intermediaries. To find the name of an intermediary micro-lender in your area, visit this pageof the SBA's website.
The Microloan program is friendlier to startups than established businesses because the "catch" to the Microloan program is borrowers typically have to enroll in technical assistance classes administered by the micro-lender intermediaries. For some entrepreneurs, this is a very helpful resource that provides cost-effective business training. Others, however, perceive it as a waste of time, although it's a necessary pre-condition to getting a Microloan.