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Marketing 101

Smart ways to jump-start your marketing

Opinions expressed by Entrepreneur contributors are their own.

Imagine you could gather together the nation's top marketing gurus to fill your ear with exactly what you need to do to jump-start your business' sales. Just a fantasy? Not with marketing professionals such as Guy Kawasaki, Al Ries and Jack Trout offering their pointers on everything from marketing on a shoestring to selling on the World Wide Web. Read on to discover 101 tips from 11 marketing experts.

Familiar Faces

Often the most cost-effective strategy for growing a business is simply to persuade existing customers to buy more. How to do it? Diane Perlmutter, chair of U.S. marketing practice for Burson-Marsteller, a global communications counseling firm, shares the pointers she gives Burson-Marsteller's blue-chip clients.

1. Don't rest on your laurels. Regularly evaluate your product or service to ensure it is still priced and packaged right. Continual improvement is the best way to keep customers.

2. Be where your customers are. In evaluating media, promotional opportunities or sponsorships, select the ones that reach the highest percentage of your target audience, not just those that deliver the most people. Quality is more important than quantity.

3. Don't be afraid to innovate. Stay on top of trends, and don't be afraid to be the first to try something new. Watch MTV, hang out at a mall, surf the Net-trends often start with one group and then spread to others.

4. Learn what customers don't like about your product. That way, you can build the better mousetrap before your competitor does.

5. Keep in touch. Develop a follow-up system to stay in regular contact with customers, so when they're ready to buy again, they'll think of you. It doesn't have to be expensive or time-consuming; it's the thought that counts.

6. Repetition, repetition, repetition. You may think you've said it before, but we all hear so many messages, it's important to repeat what made your customers buy in the first place. This is true in advertising, in sales calls-in all your communications.

7. Identify strategic partnerships. Look for ways to reach out to customers, such as working with other companies that sell to them. This way you get twice the exposure at half the cost.

8. Stick to your plan. Write down everything you need to do to keep your customers happy. Include a budget, time line and measurement system. Check the time line every week so you don't fall behind.

9. Don't take existing customers for granted-or your existing customers may become someone else's new customers. If you don't treat them well, you can bet someone else will!

Striking Gold

New customers are your business's lifeblood. How do you bag them without spending a fortune? Celebrated marketing consultant Al Ries, author of Focus: The Future of Your Company Depends on It (Harper Business), shares his tips.

10. Analyze existing customers. New customers most likely will be similar to old customers. The more you know about the people you do business with now, the easier it will be to find new people to do business with.

11. Expand geographically, not demographically. If you do business with medical doctors in one location, it's easier to find doctors in another community than to try to sell to dentists in your home territory.

12. Do more of what has worked. Find out what once worked, then go out and do more of it-while doing less of what hasn't worked.

13. Try radio. It's an inexpensive medium (in terms of costs per prospect reached), and it's also inexpensive in terms of production costs-which can be nothing if station announcers read your copy.

14. Pay a finder's fee. Tell customers you will pay a finder's fee for each new customer they send you. The fee doesn't have to be large. Case in point: America Online has become the biggest online service in part by rewarding members with a free month of service for every customer they refer.

15. Write an article. Offer to write an article on your field for a newspaper or magazine. It can bring you valuable inquiries from prospects.

16. Trade mailing lists. Find someone who sells a noncompeting product or service to a similar market and swap mailing lists.

17. Buy a mailing list. There's a list available to find new customers for any business, no matter how specialized. A well-targeted mailing is a proven way to find new customers.

18. Launch a second brand. When you run out of potential new customers, do as Toyota did with Lexus-launch a new brand that appeals to customers you aren't presently attracting. This can open the door to a totally different market.

Super Savers

Does marketing require a big budget? Not at all-in fact, much of the most successful marketing is crafted by businesses with slender financial resources but high creativity. Guy Kawasaki knows this well, both from his years with Apple as a Macintosh marketing guru and his plentiful hands-on experience with Silicon Valley start-ups. The author of How to Drive Your Competition Crazy (Hyperion), Kawasaki, as always, is irreverent-and here he shares shoestring marketing tips from his forthcoming book, Rules for Revolutionaries.

19. Don't worry, be crappy. Companies spend way too much time and effort creating the "perfect product." If you don't move fast, the market will pass you by. Get your product to a reasonable stage, and take the shot.

20. Churn, baby, churn. By that I mean keep in constant motion. Once you ship your product, the winners and losers are determined not so much by where your product is as by how fast you're improving it. Never stop making your products better.

21. Change the rules of the game. If the odds are stacked against you, don't play by the established rules. Change distribution, pricing, support or marketing-somehow create your own advantages.

22. Seize segments, not share. Market share alone doesn't result in profitability. The way to get profitable is to seize and satisfy niches. Then you might gain market share, too.

23. Leave the important stuff to amateurs. Don't hire professionals to handle important functions like market research. Do it yourself. It's too important to relegate to hired guns.

24. Learn how to "suck down." All "strategic" plans aside, getting new business often comes down to whether one secretary likes you. Sucking up changes the color of your nose; sucking down changes the color of your balance sheet.

25. Don't ask customers to do what you wouldn't. Would you wait an hour for tech support? Would you send in a letter to get your statement adjusted? Neither would your customers.

26. Get a life cycle. Products go through life cycles, so your marketing strategies must, too. Sometimes you need to seek niches; other times you need to ship as fast as you can. Be flexible because you have to go with the flow of your product's life cycle.

27. Get personal with technology. No, this isn't a contradiction in terms.

E-mail, Web sites and list servers enable you to maintain close contact with a lot of people at a very low cost. Who could ask for anything more?

28. Don't let the S.O.B.s get you down. If you believe in your idea, stick to it! Don't let the bozos who have everything to gain by your failure win the head game. Be true to your vision.

Looking Good

The "right" image can be a powerful marketing tool-as demonstrated by Absolut Vodka, which has climbed to the top of its category by building an unmistakable image as cool, sophisticated and artsy. Create an image, and perception can become a profitable reality. How? Leslie Grossman, president of Communications/Marketing Action in New York City, shares secrets that have worked for her clients, including Mary Kay Inc. andLerner New York clothing stores.

29. Create a positioning statement for your company. In one or two sentences, describe what distinguishes your business from the competition. Keep it simple, memorable and snappy.

30. Test your positioning statement. Does it appeal to your target audience? Refine it until it speaks directly to their wants, needs and aspirations.

31. Use that positioning statement in every written communication to customers. This ensures your message is consistent and comes across loud and clear.

32. Create image marketing materials that communicate your positioning. Don't scrimp. Pay for professional logo design and marketing materials. These materials represent you, and they need to do it professionally and persuasively.

33. Use PR to build your image. Send out press releases, talk with journalists, and enlist the press in helping build public awareness of your business and its image. Image sells-to the media as well as to customers.

34. Does your office communicate the image you're selling? If customers visit your place of business, make sure it sells who you are. That doesn't mean big expenditures; it means using creativity and ingenuity.

35. Include your team in the image marketing plan. Help employees understand how to communicate the business's position to your target audience. You cannot build an image alone.

36. Network-and always communicate your image. Get active in associations and groups. Reinforce your business's reputation wherever you go.

Name Game

Brands sell themselves-they are the Holy Grail of marketing. But how does a Kleenex or a Coke or a Disney earn that lofty status? Not by magic, according to marketing expert Jack Trout, author of The New Positioning (McGraw Hill). Sweat and perseverance go into building a brand, says Trout, who here shares what it takes.

37. Be first. The first in almost any category tends to become the well-known brand. While the business world buzzes about quality, the real success stories are the ones that are first to market.

38. Get into their minds. Lots of companies come up with terrific ideas but never get anywhere because they don't get into the consumers' minds. Eventually, somebody else gets credit for being first.

39. Own a word. Words like "overnight" are owned by brands. Domino's Pizza owns two words: "home delivery." When you think of calling for pizza, you most likely think of Domino's.

40. Stay focused. Great brands stay focused on their concepts. When a brand gets fuzzy, bad things happen.

41. Avoid line extension. Once a brand gets built up, there are strong pressures to "extend the equity of the brand." Soon you have an endless variety of different products under the same brand. What happens? The business has made its own brand fuzzy!

42. Don't mess with success. The most powerful brands don't change. Shooting star brands come and go, like People's Express. They had a great concept-small airline, small prices. They took off like a rocket. Then they changed. Now they're gone.

43. Be competitive. Strong brands are always ready to beat up on their competition. Try to take business away from a great brand, and you're in for a very tough fight.

Net Profits

Today's buzz is online marketing, and, certainly, some companies are scoring big sales on the World Wide Web. But many more are failing. What are the secrets to online success? For answers, we turned to Bruce Judson, author of Net Marketing (Wolf New Media) and a creator of Time Warner's much-praised Pathfinder Web site (, which provides links to Time Warner's publications.

44. Have a clear objective. Don't create a Web site just because it's the thing to do. Decide why you're building your site, and design it with this in mind. But don't limit yourself-Web sites can serve a number of goals: You can advertise, sell, build prospect lists, or any one of 100 other ideas.

45. Start by experimenting. This is a new medium; learn through experience. It's far more important to get a site going than to spend months planning it.

46. Look for large cost savings. A toll-free number for order-taking or customer service costs about $1 per minute. If customers communicate with you through the Web, these costs are eliminated entirely, and the savings go directly to the bottom line.

47. Budget money upfront to build on what you learn. Interactive marketing is still so young, no one knows what will and will not work. As a result, you'll want to change your site (no matter how well-planned) based on what you learn from operating it.

48. Execute a promotion plan. More than 5,000 new commercial Web sites pop up every month. You are competing for an audience, so you need to develop a promotional plan. A "Field of Dreams" strategy (just build it, and they will come) doesn't work.

49. Promote your Web site everywhere. Include Web addresses on all packaging and in all print and broadcast advertising. Consider buying Web-based advertising that leads prospects directly to your site. Use "action" ads where one click on the ad transports the user to your Web site.

50. Register with Internet search engines. The Internet has many indexes that send people to sites related to particular topics. For instance, there's Yahoo! (, Lycos (http://www., and Excite ( Register your site with as many engines as you can find.

51. If you have a broad product line, offer a referral service. Ask visitors to your site to provide information about their needs so you can program your Web site to recommend appropriate products. By sorting through options and finding the right choice for each visitor, you provide value to these potential customers.

52. Ask if visitors want to be notified about new products and services or special sales. It's easy-and cheap-to gather the names and addresses of visitors who want to be notified by e-mail of specific new products or services.

53. Listen to your best salesperson pitch your product or service. The essence of what he or she says is the basis for a great Web site. The site should include lots of information about the benefits of your products or services.

54. Monitor competitors' Web sites. You may get ideas that will work for you as well.

Good Deeds

Success can be built by companies that base what they do on a socially responsible agenda. These companies-from Tom's of Maine and The Body Shop to Ben & Jerry's-do good and make profits, too. For pointers on how any business can build social responsibility into its marketing, we turned to Carol Coletta, a consultant in Memphis, Tennessee, who has worked with numerous businesses to develop socially responsible marketing plans.

55. Make social responsibility an integral part of your marketing mix. More than 60 percent of American adults say they will switch retail stores "based on the store's involvement in a good cause" if price and quality are equal. And 80 percent say they think a company involved in its community is more likely to be concerned about satisfying customers. But don't expect social responsibility to compensate for not being competitive on product, price and service. It can't and it won't.

56. Don't confuse socially responsible marketing with philanthropy. Philanthropy benefits a charity with no expectation of return to the donor. Social responsibility marketing initiatives (SRMIs) should be true win-win situations-the community wins, and so does your business.

57. Pick a cause relevant to your customers. American Express and restaurant merchants team up to fight hunger. Builders Square sponsors Safe and Secure Month to encourage people to keep their homes safe. The Texas book chain Half Price Books promotes literacy. To be successful, the cause must be one that matters, deeply, to your core customers.

58. Do what you do best. Home Depot employees build low-cost homes for Habitat for Humanity. Avon sales representatives distribute breast cancer awareness literature to customers. Do what makes sense for your line of business, your skills and your culture.

59. Involve customers. The best SRMIs are not promotions where you do something good and tell your customers about it; they involve customers. Department store chain Carson Pirie Scott collected worn coats from customers for needy women and rewarded donors with a discount on new coats. Make it easy for customers to do good. Then pat them on the back for doing it.

60. Involve employees. Too often, employees are the last to know about promotions. That's a fatal mistake with SRMIs. Employees must be able to communicate the real caring involved in these campaigns to customers.

61. Recognize that money is probably the least valuable of your resources. Corporate giving represents less than

5 percent of the total philanthropy in America. Individual giving makes up 80 percent. See where the real power lies?

62. Be prepared to say no. The visibility that comes with an SRMI will likely generate more requests for help. But it's far better to do one project well, with impact, than to scatter your resources across a half-dozen projects.

63. Whatever you do, do it with feeling. After all, that's what this is all about: feeling good and making a difference in your community and your business. That's something that will never go out of style.

Plan Of Attack

Ads still sell-but advertising also can be a giant waste of a small business' scarce financial resources. How can you build an advertising strategy that delivers results? Philip Nulman, an advertising strategist in White House, New Jersey, and author of Start-Up Marketing (Career Press), reveals the answers.

64. Know your unique selling proposition. Examine your business, and find issues and themes that you own exclusively. Know how your business is different from its competitors.

65. Study the competition. Knowing your competitors will help define your strategy. Post competitors' ads on a wall. This will help you anticipate their next move-and beat them to it.

66. Emotion or reason: Which sells your business better? Which side of the brain does your business appeal to? Sell motorcycles, and you need an emotional/romantic sales campaign. Sell business forms, and you must appeal to reason. Know the appeal of your business, and make sure your advertising suits it.

67. Exceed the need. Don't just satisfy customers-delight them in ways they didn't expect, such as by providing free delivery, 24-hour customer service, and incentives. Reinforce your commitment to them at all times.

68. Create a personality for your business. Give your business human qualities that help you create a selling strategy. Define your personality by looking at your prime customers and why they buy from you.

69. Use a ROCK (Roundtable of Competitive Knockouts). Once a month, sit down-either by yourself or with others-and develop at least a dozen knockout marketing ideas. Consider what your competition is doing and how you can keep them off-balance, and you'll be perceived as the most innovative marketer in your area.

70. Create exclusionary messages. A gourmet shop might brag, "No Silly Cereals Here!" By excluding certain customers, you actually strengthen your unique selling proposition.

71. Mix media. Communicate using a variety of media (print, broadcast, outdoor, transit), and you reach more people. Examine available media, then develop a plan to reach the most people in different environments for the lowest cost.

72. Set your budget. Every industry has a typical percentage of sales that's used for advertising and marketing. Know your industry average-ask trade groups for this information. Three to 5 percent of gross sales is generally a good rule of thumb for a small business. But don't underspend; that's penny-wise and pound-foolish.

73. Know when clever is better. Develop ads that use creativity to break through our information clutter. But make sure your humor is really funny. And make sure everything your ads say can be substantiated-or your campaign may backfire.

Direct Hit

No marketing is more on target than direct-response marketing-if customers actually respond. That means using sales tactics that get people to order, not ogle. Here, Entrepreneur "Advertising Workshop" columnist Jerry Fisher, author of Creating Successful Small Business Advertising, tells how to use mail, infomercials and other direct-response tools to make your cash registers ring.

74. Reactivation voucher. Mail a $20 no-strings-attached voucher to any customer you haven't seen in six months or longer. Few can turn it down, and still fewer will spend only $20.

75. "Magalog." Create new value, freshness and anticipation for your catalog by enhancing it with problem-solving editorial content, thereby creating a magazine-cum-catalog.

76. Two-dollar bill. Send an unexpected two-dollar bill along with a questionnaire asking customers about product/service preferences. This lets them know you want to please them.

77. "We've missed you." Send a card to clients you haven't seen in a year telling them they've been missed and that you'd love to see them again. Offer a "Welcome Back" discount.

78. Grab their attention. Send out a price-reduction notice in an envelope that looks like it's an overnight delivery. Ask your printer about envelope prices-they're much cheaper than you (or your customers) suspect.

79. Birthday call. Record the birth dates of all customers so that, on that day, they'll get a special greeting from you. Sentimentality earns you brownie points-and that translates into sales!

80. "Lumpy" mailer. Nobody can resist this: Customers will always open an envelope with a lump in it or a small box of anything. Inside put a swatch or sample of a new product you want to promote.

81. Infomercial two-fer. Up your infomercial response rate by always offering a second item free with purchase. This technique can turn fence-sitters into buyers.

82. Infomercial aftermarket. Never produce an infomercial for the primary sale alone. For every one unit sold via television, 10 can sell via retail with the label "As Seen on TV"-so make sure you put those labels on everything shown in infomercials.

Melting Pot

America is ever more diverse, with an estimated 80 million blacks, Latinos, Asian Americans and many moreethnic groups. Ignoring ethnic groups in marketing can be a costly blunder, says consultant Marlene Rossman, author of Multicultural Marketing (Amacom). Here Rossman shares strategies for tapping into a market that annually wields $700 billion in economic clout.

83. Reach out with respect and relevance. Make a cultural, racial or ethnic mistake, and you may never recover in that marketplace. Do your homework, and avoid costly blunders.

84. Get Census Bureau data for your community. The numbers are free, and one look will tell you the groups you should be targeting.

85. Don't make it harder for yourself. Cast a wide net, but understand that some groups-for instance, recent arrivals from China who have settled in New York City's Chinatown-often are insular and difficult to reach. Don't give up; just pursue other groups that are more open.

86. Even insular groups can be an excellent source of business if approached correctly. Relationship-building is key; create trust before trying to sell. For many ethnic groups, this can take twice as long as when selling to mainstream populations. But the payoff is that once you sell to these groups, you'll have very loyal customers.

87. Is your work force multicultural? Ask employees for advice on going after the markets they know. Involve them in the planning, and reward them when their ideas pay off.

88. Build on foreign successes. If you already sell internationally, leverage those successes to sell domestically. If you're selling to Latin America, go after domestic Latinos. There are differences between the groups, but know-how picked up abroad can definitely be applied here.

89. Be aware of subsegment differences. All Latinos aren't the same. An innocent word to Mexican Americans may be an obscenity to Puerto Ricans. Don't fall into the trap of "lumping" people.

90. Spend smarter, not more. Advertising through multicultural media is less expensive than mainstream media, and their audiences are very loyal to advertisers. But don't just translate mainstream ads: Create relevant lifestyle ads for each market.

91. Outreach must be consistent and long-term. Don't spend big dollars on Cinco de Mayo and expect larger payoffs-unless you follow up with sincere marketing year-round.

92. Get involved in the community. Support grass-roots activities. Sponsor a Little League team or a Children's Night at the YMCA. Multicultural communities appreciate businesses that support the neighborhood.

Global Vision

Is there a realistic chance for small businesses to market abroad? Absolutely, says Eileen Cassidy, director of international trade for the U.S. Small Business Administration (SBA). According to Cassidy, many small businesses already are scoring abroad-and many more could if they followed the SBA's game plan for selling in foreign countries.

93. Do your homework. Research is key. Take advantage of the U.S. government's free information sources before taking the plunge. Start with the SBA's Web site ( and the Office of International Trade's Web page (

94. Get smart about foreign competition. Become familiar with the local marketplace, business environment and economic conditions. This will save you money in the long run.

95. Know the value of "Made in America." The USA name retains tremendous selling power in much of the world.

96. Be flexible. Be sensitive to other countries' cultures, and adapt your product or service accordingly.

97. Know how you will get paid. Develop an international pricing strategy, taking into consideration all the factors involved with exporting. Be aware, too, that most currencies fluctuate in value, sometimes dramatically, and not all currencies are readily convertible.

98. Get up to speed on export finance. Meet your local banker, and ask about programs available to finance your product or service abroad. Also ask about the SBA's Export Working Capital Program-it's available nationwide.

99. Know the laws. When you're starting out, tariffs, regulations and distributorship agreements can be intimidating. Get answers before you stumble into a legal thicket. The Export Legal Assistance Network can help you overcome these hurdles; call (800) 8-ASK-SBA for more information.

100. Check out the Big Emerging Markets. Look for opportunities in the world's growing markets. As pinpointed by the Commerce Department, these include Argentina, The Association of Southeast Asian Nations, Brazil, China, India, Mexico, Poland, South Africa, South Korea and Turkey. By the year 2010, these emerging markets will account for 25 percent of the world's imports.

101. Be committed. Exporting is a process, not a transaction. You need to be in it for the long haul to reap the rewards.

Lighting The Way

Every year, countless people go hungry in this country. And every year, hundreds of cars are involved in traffic accidents because their headlights aren't properly aligned. While these two facts may not appear to be related, for ABRA Auto Body & Glass, they are-and the Brooklyn Center, Minnesota-based vehicle damage repair franchisor has spent seven years building a major promotional campaign that addresses both concerns.

The program started in 1990, when ABRA was looking for a way to promote itself and simultaneously help the community. The solution? To offer ABRA patrons free headlight alignment in exchange for six cans of food or a monetary donation to the local food bank. "Originally, there was one repair shop in the Twin Cities [area] that was doing this, and we felt that with the number of locations we had, that we could do something [similar] on a grander scale," remembers Rollie Benjamin, ABRA's president and CEO. So ABRA, which also provides paintless dent repair and auto glass replacement, asked its franchisees to volunteer to offer the program in their local communities. Seven years later, each of the franchisor's 53 locations in 11 states participates.

Although the program officially takes place in November, Tim Adelmann, ABRA's executive vice president and COO, says, "We never turn people away. If someone comes in with six cans of food in the middle of summer, we'll align the headlights because [the donation] does eventually get to the food bank."

According to Adelmann, the response has been very positive. ABRA collected 24,000 pounds of food systemwide in 1996, in addition to several thousand dollars, making the roads a little safer and helping plenty of people have happier holidays. "We believe in being a good neighbor to the community-that if you give, you shall receive," says Benjamin. "It's a win-win situation." -Charlotte Mulhern

Saucy Idea

Sometimes some of the best sales strategies "just sort of happen." Kurt Sward, president of Fulton & Maine Advertising Inc. in Rockford, Illinois, can attest to that: When looking for the perfect holiday gift for his advertising agency's clients in 1991, Sward and partner Brian Makela stumbled on an idea that brought clients back asking for more.

Using an old Sward family recipe going back four generations, the entrepreneurs mixed up homemade batches of a premium barbecue sauce, dubbed Sam Fulton's Hog Sauce, and sent it to their clients. Sward and Makela ensured their holiday package also doubled as an understated, yet effective, sales tool. Hog Sauce recipients would receive free Hog Sauce refills for a year, as well as several friendly postcards from Sam Fulton, the fictional character behind the product, full of recipes, restaurant recommendations and other tidbits.

The gift allowed Sward and Makela to showcase their advertising talents because they created the product and designed all the labeling and packaging themselves. "We didn't feel we'd have to send them blatant promotional messages about us," Sward explains. "Really, the best way is to let the customers remind themselves about us."

Clients' rave reviews spawned a Hog Sauce gift-giving tradition at Fulton & Maine, and even led the partners to open a successful spinoff company last year in Chattanooga, Tennessee. Called Sam Fulton Inc., the firm enables other companies to send Hog Sauce to their clients, too. "All year long, every time [your clients] replenish their supply, they're going to remember who gave it to them," says Sward, whose company produced about 5,000 bottles of Hog Sauce in 1996.

Each Sam Fulton Inc. customer gets exclusive Hog Sauce-giving rights; a database ensures only one company will give the gift to a particular client. The gift package comes with a jar of Hog Sauce, a hog's-hair basting brush, a bag of maple and hickory Smokin' Chips, and a cookbook of favorite Fulton family recipes. The gift packs, which retail for $44.95, have elicited so much consumer interest that Hog Sauce will soon be found in gourmet shops and grocery stores nationwide. -C.M.

Contact Sources

ABRA Auto Body & Glass, 6601 Shingle Creek Pkwy., #200, Brooklyn Center, MN 55430, (800) 536-2334, (612) 561-7220

Burson-Marsteller, (212) 614-5249,

Coletta & Co., 41 Union Ave., Memphis, TN 38103, (901) 528-0800,

Communications/Marketing Action, 114 E. 32nd St., New York, NY 10016, (212) 685-9333

Bruce Judson, (800) NET-1133, ext. 125,

Guy Kawasaki, (, e:mail:

Philip Nulman, 3 Old Hwy. 28, White House Station, NJ 08889, (908) 534-4041

Al Ries, (

Marlene Rossman, c/o Rossman Graham Associates, 201 E. 17th St., 17th Fl., New York, NY 10003, (619) 268-9092, (212) 533-5981

Sam Fulton Inc., 2288 Gunbarrel Rd., #111, Chattanooga, TN 37421, (888) 726-3858

Small Business Administration, Office of International Trade, 409 Third St. S.W., 8th Fl., Washington, DC 20416, (800) 8-ASK-SBA

Jack Trout, c/o Trout & Partners Ltd., 2 Pickwick Plaza, Greenwich, CT 06830-5530, (203) 622-4312

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