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IMF Warns of Interest Rate Risks as Global Debt Surges to Record $226 Trillion Loose monetary conditions combined with fiscal stimulus and pandemic-related supply-side disruptions have pushed inflation in a number of countries to multi-decade highs.

By The Epoch Times Edited by Charles Muselli

Opinions expressed by Entrepreneur contributors are their own.

The International Monetary Fund (IMF) has warned of interest rate risks with regard to the growing mountain of global debt, which jumped to a record $226 trillion in 2020 as governments unleashed unprecedented waves of stimulus spending to blunt the impact of the pandemic recession.

IMF officials said in a Dec. 15 blog post that 2020 saw the biggest one-year debt surge as central banks eased monetary conditions and governments, households, and businesses borrowed a total of $28 trillion, with the borrowing spree pushing the debt-to-GDP ratio to a whopping 256 percent.

"Debt was already elevated going into the crisis, but now governments must navigate a world of record-high public and private debt levels, new virus mutations, and rising inflation," IMF economists Vitor Gaspar, Paulo Medas, and Roberto Perrelli wrote in the note.

Loose monetary conditions combined with fiscal stimulus and pandemic-related supply-side disruptions have pushed inflation in a number of countries to multi-decade highs. In the United States, consumer prices in November surged at their fastest annual pace in 39 years.

Surging inflation, an unwanted side effect of the stimulus-fueled economic rebound, has prompted a number of central banks to pivot towards tightening monetary conditions. The Federal Reserve on Wednesday decided to accelerate the pace of phasing out its massive $120 billion in monthly bond-buys, paving the way for interest rates to rise sooner.

"For consumers, the writing is on the wall that interest rates are likely to start climbing in 2022. Now is the time to be making headway on paying off high-cost credit cards, consolidating debt at lower fixed rates, and refinancing the mortgage," Bankrate Chief Financial Analyst, Greg McBride, told The Epoch Times in an emailed statement.

Rising interest rates mean borrowing costs will go up and, along with them, debt sustainability concerns.

"As interest rates rise, fiscal policy will need to adjust, especially in countries with higher debt vulnerabilities," the IMF team wrote. "As history shows, fiscal support will become less effective when interest rates respond—that is, higher spending (or lower taxes) will have less impact on economic activity and employment and could fuel inflation pressures."

If global interest rates rise faster than expected and economic growth weakens, risks will be amplified, the IMF team said.

"A significant tightening of financial conditions would heighten the pressure on the most highly indebted governments, households, and firms. If the public and private sectors are forced to deleverage simultaneously, growth prospects will suffer," they said, urging governments to strike "the right balance between policy flexibility, nimble adjustment to changing circumstances, and commitment to credible and sustainable medium-term fiscal plans."

"Such a strategy would both reduce debt vulnerabilities and facilitate the work of central banks to contain inflation," the team wrote.

Nick Reece, Vice President of Macro Research and Investment Strategy at Merk Investments, told The Epoch Times in an emailed statement that the Fed wants to tighten monetary conditions in a way that doesn't trigger financial instability, but noted that "the current swaps curve implied forward rates suggest the Fed might be on course to overtighten in "22 and "23 and then have to cut rates in 2025."

Sen. Rick Scott (R-Fla.) recently expressed concern about elevated prices and massive borrowing, telling CNBC in an interview that "unbelievable" levels of inflation and debt are now his chief worry.

"My biggest concern is this unbelievable inflation and this unbelievable debt. There is a day of reckoning for all of this debt," Scott told CNBC's "Squawk Box" in an interview on Dec. 13.

The Florida Republican's remarks came a day after a new poll showed that 69 percent of Americans disapprove of President Joe Biden's handling of inflation.

By Tom Ozimek

Tom Ozimek has a broad background in journalism, deposit insurance, marketing and communications, and adult education. The best writing advice he's ever heard is from Roy Peter Clark: 'Hit your target' and 'leave the best for last.'

The Epoch Times, founded in 2000, is headquartered in Manhattan, New York, with a mission to provide independent and accurate information free of political bias or corporate influence. The organization was established in response to censorship within China and a lack of global awareness regarding the Chinese regime's repression of the spiritual practice Falun Gong.

The Epoch Times is a widely read newspaper that is distributed in 33 countries and is available in 21 languages. The publication has been critical in providing balanced and detailed reporting on major global events such as the 2003 SARS pandemic and the 2008 financial crisis. Notably, the organization has played a key role in exposing corruption inside China.

Aside from its human rights coverage, The Epoch Times has made significant contributions in a variety of fields. It has received praise for its in-depth analysis and expert perspectives on business, the economy and U.S. politics. The newspaper has also received praise for its broad coverage of these topics.

A series of editorials titled "Nine Commentaries on the Communist Party" appeared in The Epoch Times in 2004. It asserts that freedom and prosperity in China can only be achieved by eliminating the Communist Party, which violated China's cultural and spiritual values. In addition, the organization led the Tuidang movement, which resulted in over 400 million Chinese citizens quitting the Communist Party. In spite of this, 90% of websites referring to the "Nine Commentaries" were blocked by the Chinese regime.

The Epoch Times has been at the forefront of investigating high-level corruption cases within the Chinese regime, with its reporters taking significant risks to uncover these stories. The organization has received several awards for its investigative journalism.

The organization has received several awards for its investigative journalism. For more, visit

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