You can be on Entrepreneur’s cover!

Here Are the Three Types of Arrogance, According to a New Study A team of psychology researchers broke down the idea of arrogance into three distinct levels.

By Sheila McClear

entrepreneur daily

This story originally appeared on Ladders

laflor | Getty Images

The guy down the hall from you might be an arrogant jerk — but what kind of arrogant jerk? There are three types of arrogance, according to a new literature review team of psychology researchers at the University of Missouri-Columbia, and they broke them down into "levels."

Nelson Cowan, a Curators Distinguished Professor of Psychological Sciences in the MU College of Arts and Science, led the study.

"We were surprised at the limited amount of modern research we found on arrogance," Cowan said in a release of the group's findings. "Furthermore, we found it didn't all come from one specific area. So we created a one-stop resource to inspire further research, including, but not limited to, possible medical diagnoses of personality disorders."

There are three distinct types of arrogance, according to Cowan and his team.

  1. Individual arrogance: This might be the most familiar type. An outsized opinion of one's own abilities or accomplishments, this person could be your Saturday night date or your boss. It can be annoying, but it's largely harmless.
  2. Competitive arrogance: This person has an exaggerated sense of their own abilities or accomplishments as compared to others. If they're a tennis player, for example,they probably think they could give Venus Williams a run for her money on the court.
  3. Antagonistic arrogance: This type is probably the most serious; the type of person who enjoys the "denigration of others based on an assumption of superiority." The antagonistically arrogant person shows or feels "active opposition or hostility" towards someone or something," suggesting their aggression.

"Arrogance isn't just about interpersonal relationships — it spans all types of relationships," Cowan said. "The system created with the study could be applied to … even dialogues between nations and politician groups."

The review was published in the Review of General Psychology.

Besides Cowan, other authors included Eryn J. Adams, Sabrina Bhangal, Mike Corcoran, Reed Decker, Ciera E. Dockter, Abby T. Eubank, Courtney L. Gann, Nathaniel R. Greene, Ashley C. Helle, Namyeon Lee, Anh T. Nguyen, Kyle R. Ripley, John E. Scofield, Melissa A. Tapia, Katie L. Threlkeld and Ashley L. Watts. Funding was provided by a NIAAA grant.

Want to be an Entrepreneur Leadership Network contributor? Apply now to join.

Editor's Pick

Resumes & Interviewing

Build a Better Resume with This $35 Subscription

AI Resume Builder promises to help you apply to jobs twice as fast.

Side Hustle

He Took His Side Hustle Full-Time After Being Laid Off From Meta in 2023 — Now He Earns About $200,000 a Year: 'Sweet, Sweet Irony'

When Scott Goodfriend moved from Los Angeles to New York City, he became "obsessed" with the city's culinary offerings — and saw a business opportunity.


I Got Over 225,000 Views in Just 3 Months With Short-Form Video — Here's Why It's the New Era of Marketing

Thanks to our new short-form video content strategy, we've amassed over 225,000 video views in just three months. Learn how to increase brand awareness through short-form video content.

Business News

Samsung Makes 6 Day Workweeks Mandatory for Executives as the Company Enters 'Emergency Mode'

Samsung said its performance "fell short of expectations" last year. Now executives are required to work weekends.


6 Habits That Help Successful People Maximize Their Time

There aren't enough hours in the day, but these tips will make them feel slightly more productive.


You Won't Have a Strong Leadership Presence Until You Master These 5 Attributes

If you are a poor leader internally, you will be a poor leader externally.